Resilient Infrastructures

[bracket] | Neeraj Bhatia

Throughout the history of architecture, the role of the Architect has been to determine lines that ordered the world. In the past two centuries, however, as cities have rapidly expanded into vast urban territories that are organized through the negotiation of politics, economics, ecosystems, and cultural values, the ability to determine such lines has become progressively more complex and suspect.

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Related publications:
Bracket 1 [on Farming]
Landscape Futures


[1] UNFPA, “Urbanization: A Majority in Cities”,
[2] Thomas Friedman, The World is Flat (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux Publishers, 2005).
[3] Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1958), 175-176. [Emphasis added]
[4] Ibid. 52
[5] Isaiah Berlin, “The Counter-Enlightenment” in The Proper Study of Mankind. Ed. Hardy, Henry (New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1997), 243-268.
[6] Le Corbusier, “The City and Its Region” and “Conclusion—Main Points of Doctrine.” in The Athens Charter (New York: Grossman Publishers, 1973), 43-49 and 91-105.
[7] Van Eyck, Aldo, “Is Architecture Going to Reconcile Basic Values?” in Documents of Modern Architecture: CIAM ’59 in Otterlo, ed. Jürgen Joedicke (New York: Universe Books Inc., 1961), 26-35.
[8] Archigram, “Control and Choice” in Archigram, ed. Peter Cook and Michael Webb (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999), 68.
[9] Hadas Steiner, “Within the Big Structure” in Megastructure Reloaded, ed. Sabrina van der Ley and Markus Richter (Berlin, Hatje Cantz, 2008), 136-152.
[10] Archigram, “Open Ends: Editorial from Archigram 8” in Archigram: A Guide to Archigram 1961-74 (Taiwan, Garden City Publishing, 2003), 216-227.
[11] As opposed to political concept of pluralism.
[12] Simon Sadler, “Beyond Architecture: Indeterminacy, Systems and the Dissolution of Buildings” in Archigram: Architecture without Architecture (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2005), 90-93.
[13] Archigram, “Open Ends: Editorial from Archigram 8” in Archigram: A Guide to Archigram 1961-74 (Taiwan, Garden City Publishing, 2003), 216-227.
[14] Hadas Stiener, “The Forces of Matter” in The Journal of Architecture, 10 (2005), 91-109.
[15] For more in depth discussion of the ‘soft pod’ project in the Viennese context, see: Jon Cummings, “Of Pop and Prosthesis: Vienna, 1965-72” in this almanac.
[16] Bill Voyd, “Funk Architecture” in Shelter and Society, ed. Paul Oliver (London: Barrie & Jenkins Publishers, 1976), 156.
[17] For larger discussion on complex feedback processes, see: Nicholas Negroponte, “Responsive Architecture” in Soft Architecture Machines (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1975), 135-137.
[18] Further discussion of Earthrise and its relation to the soft project can be found in: Sanford Kwinter, “Soft Systems” in Culture Lab, ed. Brian Boigon (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1992), 207-227.
[19] Nate Berg, “Burning Man and the Metropolis”, The Design Observer/Places Magazine,
[20] For further discussion on the relationship of platform and application, see: Scott Colman, “Soft Progressivism in a Wasteland of Urban Code” in this almanac.
[21] Will Chase, “Afterburn Report 2010”, Burning Man,
[22] Rod Garrett, “Designing Black Rock City”, Burning Man,
[23] Ibid.
[24] Félix Guattari, The Three Ecologies (London and New Brunswick, NJ: Athlone Press, 2000), 28.