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Excerpt from This is Hybrid, published by a+t architecture publishers
[1] Joseph Fenton. ‘Hybrid Buildings’ in Pamphlet Architecture no. 11: Hybrid Buildings, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, 1985. p 5.

[2] Leonardo Benevolo. History of Modern Architecture. The MIT Press, 1977.

[3] Communal house.

[4] ‘We constructivist architects are completely convinced that the problem of ideal architectural content is resolved most exactly by following the aim to create new types of architecture capable of condensing new social relationships.’ Moisei Ginzburg. Sovremennaya Arkhitektura, No 2, 1926: In: Bonfanti, Bonicalzi, Rossi, Scolari, Vitale. Architettura Razionale. Franco Angeli Editore, 1975. p 49.

[5] Ibid.

[6] ‘Just as capacitors, electrical condensers, transform the nature of the electric current, social condensers should cause an individual preoccupied by his/her own interests to become a complete human being.’ Anatole Kopp. Ville et revolution. Architecture et urbanisme sovietiques des année vingt. Anthropos, 1967. p 148.

[7] Rem Koolhaas. Delirious New York. The Monacelli Press,1978. p 158.

[8] Joseph Fenton. Op. cit. p 20.

[9] Kenneth Frampton. Modern architecture: a critical history. Oxford University Press. 1980. p 174.

[10] Rex. Museum Plaza. Louisville. p 244-253.

[11] Larry Ford. Cities and Buildings: Skyscrapers, Skid Rows, and Suburbs (Creating the North American Landscape). The Johns Hopkins University Press; Revised edition, 1994.

[12] Simon Rawlinson. ‘Cost model: Mixed-use city-centre schemes’ in Building No 49, 2005.

[13] S. O. Chan- Magomedov. Moisej Ginzburg. Franco Angeli Editori, 1975. p 126-127.

[14] Iñaki Ábalos/Juan Herreros. Tower and Office: from Modernist theory to Contemporary Practice. The MIT Press, 2003.

[15] Rem Koolhaas. Op. cit. p 152.


[17] Ábalos & Herreros. Gustavo Gili, 1993. p 14-19.

Hybrid versus Social Condenser

In the search for models capable of economizing on resources, Hybrid Buildings, especially those with residential uses, are specimens of opportunity which have the gene of mixed use development embedded deep into their gene code, a gene which is vital in order to adapt to the trends of the times. Nevertheless, this mixed condition brings them to be mistakenly compared to another avant-garde model, a model which despite at first seeming to be its predecessor, the truth is quite the opposite. We are of course referring to the Social Condenser.

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Excerpt from This is Hybrid, published by a+t architecture publishers

urbanNext (May 31, 2023) Hybrid versus Social Condenser. Retrieved from
Hybrid versus Social Condenser.” urbanNext – May 31, 2023,
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urbanNext – Hybrid versus Social Condenser. [Internet]. [Accessed May 31, 2023]. Available from:
Hybrid versus Social Condenser.” urbanNext – Accessed May 31, 2023.
Hybrid versus Social Condenser.” urbanNext [Online]. Available: [Accessed: May 31, 2023]

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